He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War —receiving recognition for his command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the scorched earth policies he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States.
Liddell Hart declared that Sherman was "the first modern general". Sherman distinguished himself at the First Battle of Bull Run inbefore being transferred to the Western Theater.
Stationed in Kentucky, his pessimism about the outlook of the war led to a nervous breakdown that required him to be briefly put on leave. He recovered by forging a close partnership with General Ulysses S. Sherman served under Grant in and during the battles of forts Henry and Donelsonthe Battle of Shilohthe campaigns that led to the fall of the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg on the Mississippi Riveras well as the Chattanooga Campaign that culminated with the routing of the Confederate armies in the state of Tennessee.
Sherman then led the capture of the strategic city of Atlantaa military success that contributed to the re-election of President Abraham Lincoln. Sherman's subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas involved little fighting but large-scale destruction of cotton plantations and other infrastructure, a systematic policy intended to undermine the ability and willingness of the Confederacy to continue fighting.
Sherman accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida in Aprilbut the terms that he negotiated were considered too lenient by US Secretary of War Edwin Stantonwho ordered General Grant to modify them. Sherman served in that capacity from until and was responsible for the U. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars during that period. He steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in published his Memoirsone of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War.
Sherman was born in in LancasterOhio, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father, Charles Robert Shermana successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Courtdied unexpectedly in He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children and no inheritance.
After his father's death, the nine-year-old Sherman was raised by a Lancaster neighbor and family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing, Sr. Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Sherman's older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge. One of his younger brothers, John Shermanserved as a U.
Another younger brother, Hoyt Shermanwas a successful banker. Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewingat age 30 and have eight children with her. Sherman's unusual given name has always attracted considerable attention.
According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name "William" at age nine or ten, after being taken into the Ewing household. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, although he later left the church, citing the effect of the Civil War on his religious views. According to a story that may be myth, Sherman was baptized in the Ewing home by a Dominican priest, who named him William for the saint's day: possibly June 25, the feast day of Saint William of Montevergine.Army and Marine Corps, as well as most Allied nations.
Considered a medium tank, the Sherman initially had a mounted 75mm gun and had a crew of five. In addition, the M4 chassis served as the platform for several derivative armored vehicles such as tank retrievers, tank destroyers, and self-propelled artillery.
Christened "Sherman" by the British, who named their U. Designed as a replacement for the M3 Lee medium tank, the plans for the M4 were submitted to the U. Army Ordnance Department on August 31, Approved the following April, the goal of the project was to create a dependable, fast tank with the ability to defeat any vehicle then currently in use by Axis forces. In addition, the new tank was not to exceed certain width and weight parameters to ensure a high level of tactical flexibility and permit its use over a wide array of bridges, roads, and transportation systems.
During its 50,unit production run, the U. Army built seven principle variations of the M4 Sherman. These variations did not represent a linear improvement of the vehicle but rather changes in engine type, production location, or fuel type.
As the tank was produced, a variety of improvements were introduced, including a heavier, high-velocity 76mm gun, "wet" ammunition storage, a more powerful engine, and thicker armor. In addition, numerous variations of the basic medium tank were built.
These included a number of Shermans mounted with a mm howitzer instead of the usual 75mm gun, as well as the M4A3E2 Jumbo Sherman. Featuring a heavier turret and armor, the Jumbo Sherman was designed for assaulting fortifications and aiding in breaking out of Normandy. Other popular variations included Shermans equipped with duplex drive systems for amphibious operations and those armed with the R3 flame thrower.K24a3 vs k20a2
Tanks possessing this weapon were frequently used for clearing enemy bunkers and earned the nickname "Zippos," after the famous lighter.
The first U. Shermans saw combat the following month in North Africa. These two variants were the principle versions in use until the introduction of the popular hp M4A3 in late When the Sherman first entered service, it was superior to the German tanks it faced in North Africa and remained at least on par with the medium Panzer IV series throughout the war. With the landings in Normandy in Juneit was learned that the Sherman's 75mm gun was incapable of penetrating the front armor of the heavier German Panther and Tiger tanks.
This led to the rapid introduction of the high-velocity 76mm gun. Even with this upgrade, it was found that the Sherman was only capable of defeating the Panther and Tiger at close range or from the flank. Utilizing superior tactics and working in conjunction with tank destroyers, American armor units were able to overcome this handicap and achieved favorable results on the battlefield.
Due to the nature of the war in the Pacific, very few tank battles were fought with the Japanese. As the Japanese seldom used any armor heavier than light tanks, even early Shermans with 75mm guns were able to dominate the battlefield. Replaced by the Patton series of tanks in the s, the Sherman was heavily exported and continued to operate with many of the world's militaries into the s.
Share Flipboard Email. Kennedy Hickman.Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. Abrams graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in ranked th of in the class  and served with the 1st Cavalry Division from tobeing promoted to first lieutenant in and temporary captain in Abrams became an armor officer early in the development of that branch and served as a tank company commander in the 1st Armored Division in In Septembera reorganization of the division redesignated the 37th Armor Regiment to the 37th Tank Battalion, which Abrams commanded; he also commanded Combat Command B of the division during the Battle of the Bulge.
During this time Abrams was promoted to the temporary ranks of major Februarylieutenant colonel Septemberand colonel April Abrams was promoted to lieutenant colonel eleven days before his 28th birthday.
America's M4 Sherman Tank, a WWII War Machine
Patton 's Third Armyand he was consequently well known as an aggressive armor commander. By using his qualities as a leader and by consistently exploiting the relatively small advantages of speed and reliability of his vehicles, he managed to defeat German forces that had the advantage of superior armor and superior guns. He was twice decorated with the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism on September 20 and December 26, He's the world champion.
In Aprilhe was promoted to temporary brevet colonel but reverted to lieutenant colonel during the post-war demobilization. On April 23,Will Lang Jr. He was again promoted to colonel and commanded the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment — These units were important assignments due to the Cold War concern for potential invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union. He then attended and graduated from the Army War College in He was promoted to brigadier general and appointed deputy chief of staff for reserve components at the Pentagon — He was assistant division commander of 3rd Armored Division —60 and then commanded the division —62 upon his promotion to major general.
He was transferred to the Pentagon as deputy Chief of Staff for Operations —63 and during this time he served as representative of the Army Chief of Staff overseeing the armed forces deployed to support the enrollment of James Meredith at the segregated University of Mississippi.
He was promoted to lieutenant general and commanded V Corps in Europe — Abrams was on the cover of Time magazine three times in ten years: October 13 April 19 and February Abrams was promoted to general in and appointed Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Armybut not before being seriously considered as a candidate for Chief of Staff.
Abrams succeeded Westmoreland as COMUSMACV on June 10,although his tenure of command was not marked by the public optimism of his predecessors, who were prone to press conferences and public statements. It has been asserted by authors such as Lewis Sorley that in contrast to Westmoreland, Abrams implemented counterinsurgency tactics that focused on winning the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese rural population.
According to a colonel cited in Men's Journalthere was more continuity than change in Vietnam after Abrams succeeded Westmoreland. The magazine quoted an unidentified military analyst to the effect that, "All this talk of dropping search-and destroy operations in favor of clear-and-hold is just a lot of bull. Fromthe Vietnam War increasingly became a conventional war between the military forces of South Vietnam and North Vietnam.
With this new goal, Abrams had decreased American troop strength from a peak ofin early to 49, in June The South Vietnamese forces with aerial support from the U. The prolonged efforts and expense of the war had by then exhausted much of the American public and political support.
Abrams disdained most of the politicians with whom he was forced to deal, in particular Robert McNamara and McGeorge Bundyand had an even lower opinion of defense contractors, whom he accused of war profiteering. Abrams was also in charge of the Cambodian Incursion in President Nixon seemed to hold Abrams in high regard, and often relied on his advice.
In a tape-recorded conversation between Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger on December 9,Nixon told Kissinger about Abrams' thoughts on intervention in Cambodia that: "If Abrams strongly recommends it we will do it.
Although it occurred before he assumed total command, Abrams bore the brunt of fallout from the My Lai massacre in March Nixon grew increasingly dissatisfied with Abrams' performance during Operation Lam Son and had debated for some time whether to recall Abrams. On 4 May Nixon resolved to replace Abrams with his former deputy General Frederick Weyandbut the decision was not publicly announced until 20 June This article details the history of development of tanks produced by the United Stateswhich it has done since their inception in World War One, up until the present day.
The U. The following month, in light of a report into British and French theories on tank operation, the American Expeditionary Forces ' commander-in-chief, General John Pershingdecided that both light and heavy tanks were essential for the conduct of the war and should be acquired as soon as possible.
The Inter-Allied Tank Commission decided that, because of the wartime demands on French industry, the quickest way to supply the American forces with armor was to manufacture the Renault FT light tank in the United States. Some heavy tanks would also be supplied by Great Britain. Captain Dwight Eisenhower had gone to Camp Meade, Maryland, in February with the 65th Engineer Regiment, which had been activated to provide the organizational basis for the creation of the Army's first heavy tank battalion.
In March the 1st Battalion, Heavy Tank Service as it was then known was ordered to prepare for movement overseas, and Eisenhower went to New York with the advance party to work out the details of embarkation and shipment with port authorities. The battalion shipped out on the night of March 26, however Eisenhower did not join them.
He had performed well as an administrator, and upon his return to Camp Meade, he was told he would be staying in the United States, where his talent for logistics would be put to use in establishing the Army's primary tank training center at Camp Colt in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Eisenhower became the 3 leader of the new tank corps and rose to the temporary rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the National Army and trained tank crews at "Camp Colt"—his first command—on the grounds of "Pickett's Charge" on the Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Civil War battle site.
Patton as the first officer assigned to train the crews. While tanks like the Mark V and FT17 tanks were being shipped over from France and Britain for training, Eisenhower trained his units with trucks that had bolted down machine guns. Once the tanks arrived Eisenhower had to learn how to operate one first before letting his men use it.
The M was the U. Army ordered approximately 4, Ms between andreceiving about before canceling the contract. A requirement of 1, was decided, later increased to 4, and some sample Renault tanks, plans, and various parts were sent to the US for study. The design was to be carried out by the Ordnance Department, under the job title "Six-ton Special Tractor," and orders for the vehicles placed with private manufacturers.
However, the project was beset by problems: the French specifications were in metric, and thus incompatible with American machinery; coordination between military departments, suppliers, and manufacturers was poor; bureaucratic inertia, lack of cooperation from military departments, and possible vested interests all delayed progress.Fotis dulos update
Production of the M did not begin until the autumn, and the first completed vehicles emerged in October. Two arrived in France on November 20, nine days after the armistice with Germanyand a further eight in December. The Ford 3-Ton M was one of the first light tank designs by the U. Design on the 3-ton tank started in mid The 3-Ton was a two-man tank designed so that American forces could use another tank besides the Renault FT. Its twin Model T Ford engines were controlled by the driver seated at the frontwhile the gunner sat beside him and controlled a.
A contract for 15, of these vehicles was awarded; however, the U. Tank Corps felt that the design did not meet their requirements. The contract for the 15, tanks was ended after the Armistice, when only fifteen had been produced.
After the end of the conflict, the U. Army was reorganized. InPershing recommended to a joint session of the Senate and House Committee on Military Affairs that the tank be subordinated to the infantry.
Tank Corpsand reassigned its tanks to the infantry branch, with only two heavy tank battalions and four light tank battalions escaping post-war demobilization.
The M tanks came too late, and did not take part in any combat during the war. Afterwards, however, five accompanied the U.
They returned to the U. Testing of the design was not finished until after the war, and it was decided to build vehicles in the U. The curious designation of the unit had its origin in the fact that since by law all tanks had to be part of the Infantry. Throughout most of —, Major Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded this unit.The M4 Sherman proved to be reliable, relatively cheap to produce, and available in great numbers.
It was also the basis of several successful tank destroyers, such as the M1017pdr SP Achilles and M One feature, a one-axis gyrostabilizerwas not precise enough to allow firing when moving but did help keep the reticle on target, so that when the tank did stop to fire, the gun would be aimed in roughly the right direction. These factors, combined with the Sherman's then-superior armor and armament, outclassed German light and medium tanks fielded in — The Sherman spearheaded many offensives by the Western Allies after When the M4 tank went into combat in North Africa with the British Army at the Second Battle of El Alamein in lateit increased the advantage of Allied armor over Axis armor and was superior to the lighter German  and Italian tank designs.
For this reason, the US Army believed that the M4 would be adequate to win the war, and relatively little pressure was initially exerted for further tank development. Logistical and transport restrictions, such as limitations imposed by roads, ports, and bridges, also complicated the introduction of a more capable but heavier tank. The relative ease of production allowed large numbers of the M4 to be manufactured, and significant investment in tank recovery and repair units allowed disabled vehicles to be repaired and returned to service quickly.
These factors combined to give the Allies numerical superiority in most battles, and many infantry divisions were provided with M4s and tank destroyers. After World War II, the Sherman, particularly the many improved and upgraded versions, continued to see combat service in many conflicts around the world, including the UN forces in the Korean Warwith Israel in the Arab—Israeli warsbriefly with South Vietnam in the Vietnam Warand on both sides of the Indo-Pakistani War of The U.
Army Ordnance Department designed the M4 medium tank as a replacement for the M3 medium tank. The M3 was an up-gunned development of the M2 Medium Tank ofin turn derived from the M2 light tank of Though reluctant to adopt British weapons into their arsenal, the American designers were prepared to accept proven British ideas.
British ideas, as embodied in a tank designed by the Canadian General Staff, also influenced the development of the American Sherman tank. Before long American military agencies and designers had accumulated sufficient experience to forge ahead on several points. On 18 Aprilthe U. Armored Force Board chose the simplest of five designs. This would later become the Sherman. The Sherman's reliability resulted from many features developed for U.
The goals were to produce a fast, dependable medium tank able to support infantry, provide breakthrough striking capacity, and defeat any tank then in use by the Axis nations.
The T6 prototype was completed on 2 September The upper hull of the T6 was a single large casting. It featured a single overhead hatch for the driver, and a hatch in the side of the hull. In the later M4A1 production model, this large casting was maintained, although the side hatch was eliminated and a second overhead hatch was added for the assistant driver. The modified T6 was standardized as the M4, and production began in February In August,a variant of the M4 was put forth by the Detroit Arsenal to have angled, rather than rounded hull and turret armor.
The changes were intended to improve the tank's protection without increasing weight or degrading other technical characteristics. That field manual stated:. The armored division is organized primarily to perform missions that require great mobility and firepower.Delhi to balasore flight
It is given decisive missions.The M4 General Sherman was the most widely used tank series among the Western Alliesbeing employed not only by the U. A total of 49, Sherman tanks were produced in 11 plants between and When World War II began inthe United States lagged far behind the major European states in the development of tank technology and armoured warfare doctrine. The fall of France in May awoke and alarmed the United States.
The German army had defeated France in a matter of weeks through the use of a new operational doctrine based on fast-moving, massed armoured formations supported by air power. Army needed a new main battle tank at least equal to that employed by the Germans and that it had to adopt German operational doctrine.
To that end, in July the War Department authorized the development of a new medium tank, and it also authorized the organization of the first armoured divisions.Carmen sandiego season 4 trailer
By the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor inthe United States had five armoured divisions organizing and training for war in Europe. The British fought with this tank in North Africa as early as The M3 was the result of a crisis atmosphere that was prevalent immediately following the fall of France. It is likely that no tank in history ever went from design to production faster than the General Grant.
Its major defect was its gun mount: the mm gun was carried in a sponson in the right front of the hull and could traverse only 15 degrees—a major disadvantage in tank battles. However, the M3 was only an interim measure. Production ceased in latewhen the M4 went into full production.
Its designers consciously emphasized speed and mobility, limiting the thickness of the armour and the size of the main gun, thereby compromising on firepower and survivability. The tank had a maximum speed of 38 to 46 km 24 to 29 miles per hour and a range of to km to milesdepending on the series M4 to M4A3E2. The vehicle weighed about 33 tons, depending on the series. A typical power plant was a horsepower gasoline engine. It was roughly in the same class as early versions of the German Pz.Smoke rising up after a US tank being hit by an anti tank gun in Wegscheid sultanpalyasindhi.pw Stock Footage
IV panzerwhich at that time weighed 25 tons, had a top road speed of 40 km 25 miles per hour, and mounted a mm gun. Later-model German tanks were much improved, so that by the time of the Normandy Invasion in June the M4 was outclassed by superior tanks such as the Pz.
V Panther and the Pz. VI Tiger.Few military commanders in U. For example, this Southern leader resigned his first commission in to enter for a spell the field of banking; and he thought about leaving the Army a second time after the First Battle of Bull Run left him doubting his abilities. Here are 10 more interesting things about William Tecumseh Sherman.
Inwhen Sherman was 9, his father died unexpectedly. John Ewing, a family friend and U. Senator from Ohio, adopted the boy and raised him with his family. Despite the fact that he is probably most remembered for scorching Georgia from Atlanta to the sea, Sherman loved the South.
He spent his early military career in various places throughout the South, especially enjoying Charleston, South Carolina. I tell you, war is Hell! Instead, he was sent in to California to perform administrative duties.
He embarked on a harrowing day voyage by sea that took him around Cape Horn to San Francisco. This mission helped pave the way to opening the land to prospectors. InSherman was working as a headmaster of a military academy in Louisiana which would go on to become LSU. After Louisiana seceded from the Union, he returned to St. Louis with no intent of becoming involved in the conflict. He believed the rising tensions between the North and South were pointless, and that Lincoln was doing little to quell the secessionists.
After the First Battle of Bull Run inSherman was promoted to brigadier general and then to commander of Union troops in Kentucky and Tennessee—a role he did not want. He declared publicly that it might take half a million men or more to defeat the South. Overwhelmed by the responsibility, he seemed constantly on edge, even whining to Abraham Lincoln in his dispatches.
Sherman loved the theater and attended plays whenever he could—including a presentation of Hamlet in Nashville, in the middle of the Civil War though he ended up leaving midway through, stating the acting was horrible. Sherman also was an avid painter. Some 50, were produced during the war, and they went on to serve in Korea and even into the s. You must be logged in to post a comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Leave a Comment Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment.
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